Exploring and designing scaffold materials

For cells to form tissue, it is helpful for a material scaffold to be added to provide structure. Scaffolds are crucial for cells to form tissue larger than 100µm (MacDougall 1967).

This scaffold would need to be non-toxic for the cells, edible for humans and should allow a flow of nutrients and oxygen. It must also be cheap and easy to produce on a large scale without the need for animals. Unfortunately, there is no need for such a matrix with these characteristics in the medical field so little to no research have been performed to realize this material.


MacDougall J. D. B., McCabe M., (1967) Diffusion Coefficient of Oxygen through Tissues. Nature Vol. 215 ss. 1173-1174

Chien, Karen B., Emmanuella Makridakis, and Ramille N. Shah. “Three-dimensional printing of soy protein scaffolds for tissue regeneration.” Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods 19.6 (2012): 417-426.

Volkova, I. M., and D. G. Korovina. “Three-dimensional matrixes of natural and synthetic origin for cell biotechnology.” Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 51.9 (2015): 841-856.

Hong, Sungmin, et al. “3D printing of highly stretchable and tough hydrogels into complex, cellularized structures.” Advanced Materials 27.27 (2015): 4035-4040.